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Languages of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is principally a Hindi-speaking region in its various dialects. Rajasthani comprises of five primary dialects - Marwari, Mewari, Dhundhari, Mewati and Harauti along with several other forms that we discuss here. These dialects have been derived as a distortion of the linguistic and orthographical peculiarities of the language with time. Rajasthani literature faced its worst period during the British Raj period. However, it is flourishing these days as hundreds of poets and writers have emerged who use the vernacular form of Rajasthani language as their medium. Rajasthan's folk literature is rich and varied in its nature and exists in forms of the folk songs, so famous folklores, witty sayings and proverbs, riddles and much-treasured folk-plays known as 'khayals'.

The most common language of Rajasthan is Marwari, spoken mainly in and around Jodhpur district. The mixed dialects of Marwari are also spoken in Barmer, Jalore, Pali, part of Nagaur district. In the east, it influences the dialects of Ajmer, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, to the south in Sirohi district and in the west, it affects the dialects of Jaisalmer district. Bikaner, Churu, Sikar and Jhunjhunu districts in the north are also influenced by Marwari while in the northwest, it is spoken with Punjabi influence in the Ganganagar district.

Mewari is actually the eastern form of Marwari used frequently to the southeast of the former princely state of Mewar, which comprised of Udaipur, Bhilwara and Chittorgarh districts, and its neighborhood. The dialect used in the western parts of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Thar and Parkar areas of the former Sind is called Thali in the north and Dhatak in the west. In Bikaner it is called Bikaneri while in the northeastern part of Churu, it is known as Bagri.

Jaipurior Dhundhari, earns a second place in terms of use and covers the districts of Jaipur, Tonk, Kota, Bundi, parts of Kishangarh, Ajmer and Jhalawar. Mewati is a dialect of Jaipuri to the northeast, which assumes the form of Braja Bhasha in Bharatpur. Mewati is actually the language of the former Mewat, the abode of the Meos. Dang is a further sub-dialect of Braja Bhasa in Sawai Madhopur and Karauli and that of Bundeli and Malvi in Jhalawar and the southern parts of Kota. Kishangarhi is spoken in Kishangarh and Ajmeri in Ajmer. The dialect spoken in Bundi and Kota is Harauti, which is also spoken in Jhalwar and Tonk districts.

Malvi of the former Malwa covers parts of the Jhalawar and Kota districts. The Bundeli of Narsinghpur and central Hoshangabad, the Marathi of Berar and the Nemadi dialect of Rajasthani is spoken in north Nimach and Bhansawar. The Bhils communicate in Bhili, which is similar to Dungarpur's and Banswara's Bagria form of Rajasthani with the exception of slight variation in the pronunciation. However, the language structure for both of them is the same.

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